خوش آمدید

Kya Fidyah Bataur Iftari Aulad Aur Unke Beto Ko Diya Ja Sakta Hai?



Sawal:  Meri waleda roze nahi rakh sakti isliye mai unki taraf se har maah Ramdan me fidiya deta hun, to kya ye fidya uski aulaad aur un ke beton ko iftari ke shakl me diya jaa sakta hai? Ya ke fidiya talba ki iftaari k liye dena hoga ?


Alhamdulillah..

Agar koi shakhs budhape ya bimari ki wajah se roze nahi rakh sakta aur shifayabi ki koi ummeed nahi hai, Toh usko roze na rakhne ki rukhsat hai. Lekin use chahiye ke wo har din ke badle ek miskeen ko khana khilaye, kyunke Allah ka farmaan hai,

"Aur Iski Takat Rakhne Wale Fidye Me Ek Miskeen Ko Khana De".

Surah Al-Baqarah : 184.

Ibn Abbas r.a. ne is ayat ki Tafseer me kaha kaha, "Isse budhe mard aur budhi aurat muraad hai jo roze nahi rakh sakte, so unko har din ke badle ek miskeen ko khana khilana chahiye". 

Sahih Al- Bukhari, hadith- 4505.

Aur wo mareez jise aesi marz la-haq ho jis se shifayabi ki ummeed na ho to wo bhi budhe shaks ki Tarha hai jo Roza na rakh sakta ho.

Al-Mughni : 4/396.

Lihaza ye samajh liya jaye ke fidya sirf ghareebon ko diya jayega har kisi ko nahi.

Lekin Agar uski aulaad ya aulad ki aulad aur talib e ilm jinka sawal me zikr hua hai wo gareeb nahi hai lekin ameer hai toh unhe fidya dena jayez nahi hai.

Dusri Baat:

Aur aulaad ya unke bete ko kaffara dene ke mutallik Ulema e karaam ne fidye ko zakaat ki tarha qaraar diya hai, ek shakhs ke liye unko fidya dena jayez nahi hai jin par use kharch karne ka zimma hai.

Aur jin par kharch karna wajib hai wo asl(ascendants) aur far'a(descendants) hai.

Asl ye hai ; Maa, baap, aur dada-daadi.

Aur far'a ye hai ; Bete aur Betiyan aur unki aulaad.

Ibn Qudaamah r.h. al-Mughni(11/374) mei kahte hai,

Dada dadi aur isse bhi upar walo(yani aaba wa ajdaad) aur pota aur isse bhi neeche walon par kharch karna wajib hai. Imaam al-shaafa'i, aur al-Thawri, aur ashaab al-ra'i ka yahi kehna hai.

Is bina par kaffara(fidya) aulaad aur aulaad ki aulaad ko nahi desakte kyunki aap par wajib hai ki in par kharch kare.

Aur Imaam Al-Shaafa'i ne al-Umm(7/68) mei kaha hai ;

Qasam ka kaffara kisi aazaad musalmaan aur mohtaaj ko dene se hoga, agar kisi ne zami kafir aur mohtaj ko khana diya ya kisi ghulaam musalmaan ghair mohtaj ko tou iski qasam ka kaffara ada nahi hoga, aur iska hukm aise hai jaise isne kuch bhi na diya ho, aur ise do bara kaffara ada karna hoga, aur isi tarha agar kisi ne aise shakhs ko kaffara de diya jis par kharch karna iske zimme hai aur phir ise ilm hua tou ise kaffara dobara dena hoga.

Aur Asna al-Mataalib (3/369) mei hai.

Miskeen aur faqeer ke bare mei ye hai ke wo zakaat lene ke haqdaar hai, lehaza ye kuffar ko dene se ada nahi hoga aur na hi ise dene se jiska kharch iske zimme lazim hai, kyunke kaffara Allah tala ka haq hai, lihaza isme inhone zakaat wali sifaat ko motabar shumaar kiya hai.

Lekin agar maa, maal ke khaleel hone ki bina par in par kharch karne ki isteta'at nahi rakhti, toh iske liye in(aulaad aur poton) par kharch karna wajib nahi kyunke Allah subhana wa tala ka irshaad hai ;

"Allah tala kisi bhi jaan ko iski takhat se zyada takleef nahi deta".

Surah Baqrah : 286.

Toh is halat mei aapke liye kaffara inhe dena jayez hoga.

Sahih al Bukhari aur Sahih Muslim me Nabi kareem ﷺ se sabit hai ke Aapne ramzaan ul mubarak mei roze ki halat mei jam'a karne wale shakhs ko kaffare ki adaaegi ke liye khajoorein di toh is shakhs ne kaha madine me wo sabse zyada faqeer aur mohtaj hai toh Rasool Allah ﷺ ne ise farmaya tha, "Jao apne ghar walon ko jakar khilado".

Sahih al Bukhari : 1935, 1936. Sahih Muslim : 1111.

Al-Haafiz ibn hajar r.h Fath ul bari mei kahte hai ;

Ibn Daqeeq r.h. kahte hai ki Is qisse me mazahab  (rai/views) mukhtalif hai. Ek qaul ye hai ke, "Tang dast se kaffara ke suqut par dalalat karte hai, kyunke kaffara na toh apne ap ko aur na hi apne ahel wa ayaal ko diya ja sakta hai.

Aur jamhoor ulma ka kahna hai ke, Tang dast se kaffara saqit nahi hoga aur jis shaqs ko isme tasarruf ki ijazat di gayi thi wo kaffare mei nahi (balke wo tou sadqa tha jo Rasool kareem ﷺ ne is shakhs aur iske ghar walon par kiya tha)"

Aur ek qaul ye bhi hai ke jab wo apne apne ahel wa ayaal ke naan wa nafqa se tang dast tha toh iske liye kaffara in par sarf karna jayez hua aur hadees se bhi yahi zahir hota hai".

Aur Sheikh ibn Taymiyah ka kahna hai: "Isse bhi zyada qawi ye hai ke wo atya shumaar kiya jaye na ke kaffara, balke wo ispar aur iske ahel wa ayaal par sadqa hai, kyunke inki hajat wa zaroorat iski mutaqazi thi."

Toh pata chala ke jin logon par kharch karna wajib hai unhe kaffara nahi diya ja sakta, aur agar kaffara dene wala khud tang dast aur faqeer ho aur in par kharch karne se qasir ho toh baaz ahle ilm ka kahna hai ke is haalat mei inhe kaffara dena jayez hai.

Khulasa ye hua ke ;

Jab maa apni aulaad par kharch kar sakti hai toh iske liye inhe zakat deni jayez nahi, aur agar wo in par kharch karne ki isteta'at nahi rakhti toh inhe wo kaffara de sakti hai.

Aur raha masla ye ke wo inhe bataur e iftaari de toh isme koi harj nahi, kyunke aayat mei mutalqa zikr hai: (ek miskeen ka khana fidye mei de). 

Ummeed hai ke aisa karne se ajar wa sawaab mei izafe ka bais hoga, kyunke roze daar ki iftari bhi hai lekin isme ek shart hai ke roze daar miskeen ho jaisa ke upar bayaan ho chuka hai.

Allah se dua hai ki wo hame Deen ki sahih samajh ata kare. aameen.